The genus Solanum (Solanaceae) in southern Africa: subgenus Leptostemonum, the introduced sections Acanthophora and Torva. Another way it impacts ecosystems is the plant prickles can restrict wildlife grazing and create a physical barrier to animals, preventing movement through infested areas. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, GBIF. It is also an alternate host of Meloidogyne javanica, providing a potential reservoir of this nematode in the USA (Inserra, 1994); also of Bemisia tabaci in Brazil (Lourenção and Nagai, 1994). Flora of China, 1994. Germination increases from 4 to 64% between 10°C and 30°C, but no germination is found at 5°C and 40°C. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Antifilarial effect of a combination of botanical compounds from Solanum viarum Dunal and Zingiber officinale Rosc. Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea. Comparative karyology of steroid-bearing Solanum viarum and S. mammosum. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. by Hawkes, J. G. \Lester, R. N. \Nee, M. .. \Estrada, N.]. I - Nicandra physaloides, Solanum viarum, Solanum americanum and Raphanus raphanistrum. It is important that plants are not allowed to fruit in order to prevent seed dispersal (Waggy, 2009); mowing below 10 cm plant height every 60 days will prevent fruit production and result in some plant mortality (Mullahey et al., 2006). Verma V D, 1993. Meenakshi Srinivas, Shyamsunder Joshi, Krishnan R, 1998. Files are available under licenses specified on their description … Kunal Mandal Production technology of some important medicinal and aromatic crops developed under the all India coordinated research project, 2(3):88-98, Singh KP, Shukla AN, Singh JS, 2012. Description: Shrub to 1–2 m high, hairy with stellate and some simple glandular hairs on stems, leaves pedicels and calyxes; cream coloured prickles up to 12 mm long, scattered on most parts of plants. Accessed on 09-Oct-10. Singh KP, Shukla AN, Singh JS, 2012. (Frugivoria e dispersão de sementes pelo lagarto teiú Tupinambis merianae (Reptilia: Teiidae).) Seeds are pale brown, tear-shaped, 3mm across. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 285-333, Parker C, 1992. Nee M, 1999. 1985) and from here it has spread to other southeastern and mid-Atlantic states (Medal et al., 2012). Effects of selected herbicides on the efficacy of tobacco mild green mosaic virus to control tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), 56(1):128-132, Charudattan R, Hiebert E, 2005. Similarly, Matsui et al. http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/medal/TropicalSodaApple/progress.htm, Medal J, Bustamante N, Overholt W, Diaz R, Stansly P, Roda A, Amalin D, Hibbard K, Gaskalla R, Sellers B, Hight S, Cuda J, 2010. http://www.weeds.org.au/weedident.htm, Axelrod FS, 2011. In: Solanaceae IV [ed. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 18(Special Issue):447-456. http://www.wssp.org.pk/si-49-2012,447-456.pdf, Mullahey JJ, Colvin DL, 1993. Pages in category "Solanum viarum" This category contains only the following page. A bioherbicide containing Tobacco mild green mosaic virus strain U2 has been recently registered for use against S. viarum in the USA (Charudattan and Hiebert, 2007; Charudattan, 2015). USA: USDA Forest Service. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. S. viarum is difficult to eradicate and the best management strategy varies according to the population size. Plant Archives, 7(2):653-655, DeValerio JT, Charudattan R, Mullahey JJ, Roberts PD, 2011. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a biological pollutant threatening Florida. Pest Technology, 5(Special 1):102-107. http://www.globalsciencebooks.info/JournalsSup/11PT_5_SI1.html, Diaz R, Overholt WA, Samayoa A, Sosa F, Cordeau D, Medal J, 2008. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. In: Flora of Bhutan, Volume 2 Part 3. USDA Genetic Resources Information Network., USDA. In: American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3 177-184. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 45(3):551-554, Bombarely A, Menda N, Tecle IY, Buels RM, Strickler S, Fischer-York T, Pujar A, Leto J, Gosselin J, Mueller LA, 2011. The flowers are often borne in the leaf axils, sometimes solitary or in clusters of a few flowers. 36) . Down to Earth (Midland), 51(1), 10-17. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html, USDA-ARS, 2008. Deka S J, Deka S P, 2007. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Year later studies on A. tenebrosus occurred and we able to demonstrate the weevil’s high favoritizsm for tropical soda apple even when crops like bell peppers, eggplants and tomatoes were present. ... Solanum viarum EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Solanum viarum ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Solanum viarum > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Effectiveness of triclopyr and hexazinone was enhanced when they were applied 60 days after frost had damaged the foliage (Mislevy and Martin, 1999). v + 36 pp. Print. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. The rapid spread of S. viarum is apparently favoured by moderate drought conditions in Florida, USA, though this may be partly due to the overgrazing which occurs under those conditions (Hogue et al., 2006). http://data.gbif.org/species/, GBIF, 2012. Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple); fruits. Release of Gratiana graminea was also refused at this time. Biodiversity in tropical moist forests: a study of sustainable use of Non-wood Forest Products in the Western Ghats, Kerala: monitoring and evaluation of ecological and socio-economic variables. S. viarum is listed on the USA Federal Noxious Weed List, and hence its possession, movement and release is prohibited in the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2008). S. viarum is a fast-growing herb and a very aggressive invader. Solanum viarum seeds collected from self pollinated plants grown in controlled environment in green house were washed with distilled water, followed by 0.1% of Tween-20 for 5 minutes and final wash with distilled water. Series A: Vegetables and Ornamental Plants, (No. Tropical Soda Apple Pest Risk Assessment. But solasodine was contained in the fruits harvested from scions of S. viarum grafted upon S. melongena. http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/, Bredow E, Pedrosa-Macedo JH, Medal JC, Cuda JP, 2007. Weed Technology, 11(4):656-661, Akanda RU, Mullahey JJ, Shilling DG, 1996. GBIF. Although normally perennial, S. viarum can produce fruit in the first season of growth and thus behave as an annual. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl, ISSG, 2012. Bozeman, USA: USDA-ARS/Montana State University, 154, Suryawansi YB, Patil RB, Moholkar ND, 2001. Botany Circular (Gainesville), No. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-FS, 2005. Florida Entomologist, 93(1):130-132. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/, Medal J, Gandolfo D, McKay F, Cuda J, 2004. Scripta Botanica Belgica. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/solvia/all.html, http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php?SName=Solanum%20viarum, http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?317433, http://www.hear.org/pier/species/solanum_viarum.htm, http://www.wssp.org.pk/si-49-2012,447-456.pdf, http://www.coleoptera-neotropical.org/paginas/3_familias/CURCULIONIDAE/Anthonominae/4888-Anthonomus-tenebrosus-Boheman.jpg, © 2014 Texas Invasive Species Institute. According to different risk assessments performed on this species (Lehtonen, 1994; Gordon et al., 2008) the risk of introduction of S. viarum is high. khasianum, also known as S. aculeatissimum Jacquin). This species has previously been known as S. khasianum, and there is some continuing confusion over the status of  the two subspecies S. khasianum subsp. Seed Research. [Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Fact Sheet WRS-7. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) identification and control. Copyright: (CC BY 3.0). The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Other recommended herbicides include aminopyralid (Akanda et al., 1997; Ferrell et al., 2006), hexazinone (Mislevy and Martin, 1999), glufosinate-ammonium, picloram, clopyralid, fluroxypyr and dicamba (Dowler, 1995). Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. 89 pp. Catalogue of neophytes in Belgium (1800-2005). Seeds reach maturity just over 100 days but up to 50,000 can be produced per plant. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Collecting eggplant and okra in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, India. The fruits attract livestock and wildlife. Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. U.S. Habitat: It is typically found in soils that are poorly drained and sandy, but cannot survive extremely wet soils.Located in open semi-shaded areas such as pastures, ditch banks, roadsides, recreational areas, or agricultural fields like citrus groves and sugarcane fields. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html, Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA, et al. Germination of S. viarum is moderately photoblastic with 30% germination occurring in the dark. Suryawansi Y B, Patil R B, Moholkar N D, 2001. 31-34, Medal J, 2008. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Effects of selected herbicides on the efficacy of tobacco mild green mosaic virus to control tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). Solanum viarum is an aggressive perennial shrub native to Brazil and Argentina, that has been introduced to other parts of South America, North America, Africa and Asia. Description: Herb or small shrub, 50–150 cm tall, with densely hairy stems and branches with recurved (2–5 mm long) and straight spines (up to 20 mm long) on the leaf stalks and the leaf veins. Immature fruits are smooth, round, mottled light and dark green like a watermelon. > 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall, Movement of cattle, manure, hay within USA, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Other mechanisms of movement reported include transfer in turf, water, and grass seeds from contaminated pastures (Bryson and Byrd, 2007). General Description of Brinjal. Solanum viarum, Tropical soda apple is a perennial, shrubby herbaceous plant that is on the Federal Noxious Weed list.Plants grow to 6 ft. (1.8 m) in height and width. The plant can recover from the rootstock after the shoots are killed by frost, and there is some degree of vegetative reproduction with shoots developing from spreading roots. Birds have not yet been observed feeding on … To avoid the risk of introducing the weed when purchasing cattle from an infested area, the livestock should be kept in a restricted area for at least 6 days by which time any ingested seeds should have been voided (Mullahey et al., 2006). In the Americas it has spread from its native range into other parts of South and Central America (including Mexico and Honduras) probably by seeds adhering to peoples shoes, mud, and contaminated grass seeds (Medal et al., 2008). In: Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Bozeman, Montana, USA, 4-14 July, 1999 Bozeman, USA: Montana State University, 627-631, Medal JC, Overholt W, Stansly P, Osborne L, Roda A, Chong J, Gaskalla R, Hibbard K, Sellers B, Gioeli K, Munyan D, Gandolfo D, Hight S, Cuda JP, 2006. Present: AL, AR, AZ, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, PR, SC, TN and TX. Flowering and fruit production occur throughout the year in S. viarum, but in Florida, reproductive activity is concentrated from September through May (Lehtonen, 1994). 591-596, Medal JC, Gandolfo D, Overholt W, Stansly P, Roda A, Osborne L, Hibbard K, Gaskalla R, Burns E, Chong J, Sellers B, Hight S, Cuda JP, 2007. 33 (1), 1-18. S. viarum is planted as a commercial medicinal crop especially in India, and thus intentional introduction is likely to have occurred at least in South Asia. Effect of nutrients and smoke solutions on seed germination and seedling growth of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). Solanum viarum: weed reservoir of plant viruses in Florida. A plant virus as a bioherbicide for tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum. Quinn. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 223(4):501-504, Randall RP, 2012. Also, the seeds can be spread by contaminated hay, sod or machinery. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) herbicide susceptibility and competitiveness in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT: TSA is an herbaceous perennial plant that can grow up to 2 m (6 ft in height), but is usually not much more than 1 m (3 ft) tall in Florida. chatterjeeanum an accepted synonym for S. viarum, and S. khasianum subsp. In: Botany Circular. by Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida]. Implementation of biological control of tropical soda apple. Since glyco-alkaloids are located in the gelatinous layer around the seeds, increase in seed number per berry increases the alkaloid content.The agronomy of S. viarum as a crop, grown in fallow land after rice, has been studied, especially in Karnataka, India. http://www.gbif.org/, GISIN, 2008. USA: University of Florida. Plant Biology (Stuttgart), 8(4):486-493, Coile NC, 1993. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)., Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 34. Sellers, Brent; Ferrell, Jay; Mullahey, J. Jeffrey; Hogue, Pat. Varieties with very high yield potential for alkaloids have been developed (e.g. Weed Science, 56(1):128-132. http://wssa.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1614%2FWS-07-083.1, Ferrell JA, Mullahey JJ, 2006. Suryawanshi et al. Solanum viarum, a trap crop for Helicoverpa armigera. Seeds can be dispersed by birds and other animals, including cattle, deer, feral pigs, and raccoons (Akanda et al. Considering invasiveness-related traits of this species, it is expected to spread to other tropical and subtropical areas outside its current range (Nee, 1991). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences; Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Department of Agronomy. Growth and development is enhanced under sunny conditions with temperatures ranging from 20°C to 35°C and average annual rainfall from 700 mm to 2000 mm. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184, Charudattan R, 2015. The flowers are white, 1.5 cm across in clusters of 1-5 on pedicles about 1 cm long, the more distal flowers are often male only. http://www.issg.org/database, Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Solanum viarum is also present in hammocks where cattle retreat to rest. Gainsville, Florida, USA: Florida Cooperative Extension Service. DeValerio JT, Charudattan R, Mullahey JJ, Roberts PD, 2011. S. viarum is native to Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay (Nee, 1999). Muraleedharan PK, Chandrashekhara UM, Seethalakshmi KK, Sasidharan N, 1999. Solanum viarum. Synopsis of Solanum section Acanthophora: a group of interest for glycol-alkaloides. And Ornamental plants, their source regions and use potential lizard Tupinambis (. Huge monocultural stands, crowding out forage and native species and Ecosystem Health accessed on … dasyphyllum. The introduced sections Acanthophora and Torva, et al Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres,,! And wildlife, such as … Solanum dasyphyllum is an erect, perennial herb with stems that are poorly and! Florida cattle production aculeatissimum ( = S. khasianum subsp, McGowan M, Sarangamath P,! 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