The international coordination of hydrographic efforts lies with the International Hydrographic Organization. The former name International Hydrographic Bureau was retained to describe the IHO secretariat until 8 November 2016, when a revision to the Convention on the IHO entered into force. These admixtures form a thin film layer over the cement grains. [51] Reducing agents such as ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) are often added to cement to convert the carcinogenic hexavalent chromate (CrO42−) into trivalent chromium (Cr3+), a less toxic chemical species. Handbook of advanced radioactive waste conditioning technologies. [78], An overview of climate-friendly methods for cement production can be found here. Similalry, the content of ettringite increases in ITZ. Hydraulic cement refers to any cement that will set and harden after being combined with water. [4], "For the past 18 years, China consistently has produced more cement than any other country in the world. Daarnaast vereist het productieproces brandstof en enkele overige grondstoffen, zodat cementfabrieken bij water of treinverbindingen te vinden zijn. Were positive theres a perfect pattern for eveyone's hydrographics needs! Carbon concentration in cement spans from ≈5% in cement structures to ≈8% in the case of roads in cement. thallium,[70] cadmium and mercury are the most toxic. [63] A Chatham House study from 2018 estimates that the 4 billion tonnes of cement produced annually account for 8% of worldwide CO2 emissions. [46][47] Energy requirements are lower because of the lower kiln temperatures required for reaction, and the lower amount of limestone (which must be endothermically decarbonated) in the mix. Cement je građevinski vezivni materijal dobiven usitnjavanjem i pečenjem vapnenca i lapora u fini prah. Hydrographic film supply for Hydro Dipping. The Ecofys study[75] assessed the barriers and opportunities for further uptake of alternative fuels in 14 EU member states. A következő 8 lap található a kategóriában, összesen 8 lapból. These type of cement contains some of the admixtures like acidol, napthalene soap, petrolatum (oxidised) along with others. U 65% slučajeva cement blago prekriva caklinu u predjelu vrata zuba, u 25% slučajeva oni se dodiruju, a u 10% slučajeva cement i gleđ se ne dodiruju i dentin ostaje nezaštićen. A hydrographic survey is quite different from a bathymetric survey in some important respects, particularly in a bias toward least depths due to the safety requirements of the former and geomorphologic descriptive requirements of the latter. The performance in North America and Europe over the 2010–12 period contrasted strikingly with that of China, as the global financial crisis evolved into a sovereign debt crisis for many economies in this region[clarification needed] and recession. River/stream hydrographers use handheld and bank mounted devices, to capture a sectional flow rate of moving water through a section and or current. (Jan 2011)", List of countries by cement production 2011, Pakistan loses Afghan cement market share to Iran, China's cement demand to top 1 billion tonnes in 2008, EIA – Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. 2006-Carbon Dioxide Emissions, "Striking a balance between profit and carbon dioxide emissions in the Saudi cement industry", "The Cement Industry and Global Climate Change: Current and Potential Future Cement Industry CO, "Response: Lime is a much greener option than cement, says Douglas Kent", "Revealed: The cement that eats carbon dioxide", "World's first zero-emission cement plant takes shape in Norway", "EPA Regulations Give Kilns Permission To Pollute : NPR", Guidelines for the selection and use of fuels and raw materials in the cement manufacturing process, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, "Increasing the use of alternative fuels at cement plants: International best practice", Status and prospects of co-processing of waste in EU cement plants, "Engineers develop cement with 97 percent smaller carbon dioxide and energy footprint – DrexelNow", Alternative fuels in cement manufacture – CEMBUREAU brochure, 1997, "Would you live in a house made of sand and bacteria? In practice this meant that ships often sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, and that when new areas were surveyed, the data rarely reached all those who needed it. Competitive Edge Coatings now offers hydrographic services in Connecticut. Display. Over 135 designs to choose from plus special order designs available for designs we do not stock. The science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features, natural and manmade, that aid in navigation. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal, current and wave information of physical oceanography. Hydrographic Department, UK agency for providing hydrographic and marine geospatial data. While they are often significantly more expensive, they can give a water proof material that has useful tensile strength. New manufacturing processes for producing ecological cement are being researched with the goal to reduce, or even eliminate, the production and release of damaging pollutants and greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. The former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident. [citation needed], To reduce the transport of heavier raw materials and to minimize the associated costs, it is more economical to build cement plants closer to the limestone quarries rather than to the consumer centers. [3], Nearly 900 kg of CO2 are emitted for every 1000 kg of Portland cement produced. Ketika mengacu pada hidrografi dan charting bahari dalam Konvensi dan Instrumen serupa, itu adalah … Hahn, Thomas F. and Kemp, Emory Leland (1994). It is a type of cement, similar to mortar, that sets extremely fast and hardens after it has been mixed with water. [2] The first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, and it appeared in 1800. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters. For example, sewage sludge has a low but significant calorific value, and burns to give ash containing minerals useful in the clinker matrix. From an academic standpoint, the chemical and microstructural phenomena that characterize cement hydration are quite complex and interdependent, making it difficult to resolve the individual mechanisms or the parameters that determine their rates. Their use as a low-energy alternative to Portland cement has been pioneered in China, where several million tonnes per year are produced. Cement er et gråt pulver til brug for betonfremstilling, visse typer mørtel m.m. The cement that has the capacity to turn the constituents (Cement,sand, aggregate,water) into concrete during the wet conditions is the Hydraulic cement. Een soort van moderne cement is hydraulisch cement. Hydrophobic Cement Hydrophobic cement as the name indicates that these cements are used in places where water is predominant. National organizations, particularly navies, realized that the collection, systematization and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages. In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, and introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. K Kalkoven‎ (22 P) Artikelen in de categorie "Cement" [52], In 2010, the world production of hydraulic cement was 3,300 million tonnes (3.2×109 long tons; 3.6×109 short tons). Concrete is as essential a part of the modern world as are electricity or computers. Erősen lúgos. The material used to make non-hydraulic cement include lime, gypsum plasters and oxychloride. This accounts for approximately 5% of anthropogenic CO2. Hydrographic film designs for hydro dipping and water transfer printing. Beton er en blanding af cement, vand, sand og sten. 1. Large-scale hydrography is usually undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes. Ob tem iz cementne paste nastane trd cementni kamen, ki prenaša visoke tlačne obremenitve in je zato zelo primeren gradbeni material. Deze categorie bevat de volgende ondercategorie. Of this, China accounted for 1.8 billion tonnes.[5]. This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: International Hydrographic Organization Listening is a more natural way of learning, when … [49] This zone can be up to 35 micrometer wide. Fő funkciója a gyökérhártyarostok elhorgonyzása. All are available for Sale or Rental. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, and the first catalogue published. Hydrographics is a method of transferring printed images to three-dimensional items. Details covering the above limitations can be found in Part 1 of Bowditch's American Practical Navigator. If the percentage is exceeded, the strength of cement is reduced. Abdel Rahman R.O., Rahimov R.Z., Rahimova N.R., Ojovan M.I. Cement starts to set when mixed with water, which causes a series of hydration chemical reactions. Ennek a kategóriának csak egyetlen alkategóriája van. Nickel, zinc and lead are commonly found in cement in non-negligible concentrations. 1. Polymer cements are made from organic chemicals that polymerise. Hydrographic cement. 2. These were usually the private property, even closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. Furthermore, heavy metal traces are embedded in the clinker structure and no by-products, such as ash of residues, are produced.[74]. Hydrographic surveying or bathymetric surveying is the survey of physical features present underwater. Ferrocement is een bouwmateriaal, samengesteld uit cement en één of meerdere lagen relatief fijnmazige wapening.Ferrocement is vooral populair vanwege de betrekkelijk lage materiaalkosten in relatie tot een acceptabele sterkte bij een relatief kleine wanddikte. The material remains at 1200 °C for 12–15 seconds at 1800 °C (and/ or? International Hydrographic Organization Hydrography provides the basis for all activities which involve the sea. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 20 sep 2013 om 23:37. A cement plant consumes 3 to 6 GJ of fuel per tonne of clinker produced, depending on the raw materials and the process used. Water transfer printing is used to put custom film designs onto automotive, guns, yeti cups, game controllers. Environmental protection also includes the re-integration of quarries into the countryside after they have been closed down by returning them to nature or re-cultivating them. Az Egyesült Arab Emírségek (vagy Egyesült Arab Emirátusok, gyakran csak Arab Emírségek, rövidítve magyarul EAE, angolul UAE) olajban gazdag monarchia Délnyugat-Ázsiában, a Közel-Keleten, az Arab-félsziget délkeleti részén, a Perzsa-öböl délnyugati partján. 7 Al2O3, or C12A7 in CCN). Interface Science. These types of cement are manufactured by using pozzolanic materials as one of the main ingredient. Deutsch; English; español As at year-end 2012, the global cement industry consisted of 5673 cement production facilities, including both integrated and grinding, of which 3900 were located in China and 1773 in the rest of the world. HeidelbergCement AG er en tysk multinational byggemateriale-virksomhed, der er noteret på DAX.Virksomheden har hovedsæde i Heidelberg i delstaten Baden-Württemberg.Per 2010 er det verdens tredjestørste cementproducent, markedsledende indenfor tilslag og fjerdestørst indenfor færdigblandet beton.I 2010 producerede virksomheden omkring 78 millioner ton cement. Edwards, P; McCaffrey, R. Global Cement Directory 2010. The word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ (hydor), "water" and γράφω (graphō), "to write". Ecological cement is a cementitious material that meets or exceeds the functional performance capabilities of ordinary Portland cement by incorporating and optimizing recycled materials, thereby reducing consumption of natural raw materials, water, and energy, resulting in a more sustainable construction material. A fogcement (Cementum, Substantia ossea dentis) egy elmeszesedett kötöszövet, ami a fogak gyökereit fedi. Equipment to reduce dust emissions during quarrying and manufacture of cement is widely used, and equipment to trap and separate exhaust gases are coming into increased use. Talen. In the zone,a gradual transition in the microstructural features occurs. Import obejmuje minerały i produkty chemiczne. They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals, reefs and other features that obstruct ship passage. This reduction in primary energy requirements is equivalent to approximately 11 million tonnes of coal per year with corresponding benefits in reduction of CO2 emissions. Geopolymer cements are made from mixtures of water-soluble alkali metal silicates, and aluminosilicate mineral powders such as fly ash and metakaolin. The main ingredient of concrete. [64], The majority of carbon dioxide emissions in the manufacture of Portland cement (approximately 60%) are produced from the chemical decomposition of limestone to lime, an ingredient in Portland cement clinker. Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defense, scientific research, and … Wiley, Chichester 232 pp. Organisasi Hidrografi Internasional atau International Hydrographic Organization adalah organisasi antar-pemerintah mewakili masyarakat hidrografi.Organisasi ini mempunyai status pengamat di PBB dan merupakan otoritas yang kompeten yang diakui untuk survei hidrografi dan charting bahari. "[57], In 2006, it was estimated that China manufactured 1.235 billion tonnes of cement, which was 44% of the world total cement production. It is the science of measuring all factors beneath water that affect all the marine activities like dredging, marine constructions, offshore drilling etc. Unique Group offers a range of Teledyne CARIS Marine Geospatial Solutions including CARIS Hydrographic Production Database, CARIS Bathy DataBASE, CARIS HIPS and SIPS, CARIS Onboard, CARIS S-57 Composer, CARIS Engineering Analysis Module, CARIS BASE Editor and CARIS Paper Chart Composer. (countable, uncountable) A powdered substance produced by firing (calcining) calcium carbonate (limestone) and clay that develops strong cohesive properties when mixed with water. Hydrographic survey surveying wikipedia wikipedia. In more remote areas, the only available depth information has been collected with lead lines. Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) Portland Pozzolana Cement also commonly known as PPC cement. Concrete is the most widely used material in existence and is behind only water as … A cement olyan hidraulikus kötőanyag, amelyben a kötő- és adalékanyagok víz hozzáadásával kémiai reakcióba lépnek egymással és azokat a cement képes tartósan összeragasztani.Az évenkénti cementgyártás a világon 4,2 milliárd tonna nagyságrendűre becsülhető. The level of clay components in the limestone (around 30–35%) is such that large amounts of belite (the low-early strength, high-late strength mineral in Portland cement) are formed without the formation of excessive amounts of free lime. At some point in time you have probably seen a hydrographic item, but have not realized it. Cement mixed with fine aggregate produces mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel, produces concrete. Most reservoirs in the United States use dedicated stream gauging and rating tables to determine inflows into the reservoir and outflows to irrigation districts, water municipalities and other users of captured water. Although the choice for this so-called alternative fuels (AF) is typically cost driven, other factors are becoming more important. Non hydraulic cement is becoming redundant and obsolete due to the long duration of time taken for setting of cement. The percentage of pozzolanic material used in the preparation should be between 10 to 30. 27, Clinker is manufactured by heating raw materials inside the main burner of a kiln to a temperature of 1450 °C. In: Ojovan M.I. Most construction cements today are hydraulic. Non Hydraulic Cement should be kept dry to attain strength. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can also be used for bathymetric portrayal. Iran is now the 3rd largest cement producer in the world and has increased its output by over 10% from 2008 to 2011. Wikipedia® is een geregistreerd handelsmerk van de Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., een organisatie zonder winstoogmerk. One type of modern cement is hydraulic cement. Best Quality Automatic Water Transfer Printing Machine/Hydrographic Printing Machine Competitive price with high quality and best after service Provide professional training at our factory 1) Best and Timely Service,discount for big order. Yet there are large differences in the share of alternative fuels used between the European Union (EU) member states. Hydrographic cement is a complete unknown term to me,if anyone has any information regarding it do comment it down below. Cement er fremstillet af 3/4 kalk og 1/4 ler.Kalk og ler blandes sammen og brændes i en cementovn. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills, mountains and even lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Introduction. Het doel van het UKHO is het beschermen van levens op zee. [66] Newly developed cement types from Novacem[67] and Eco-cement can absorb carbon dioxide from ambient air during hardening. Cementitious materials for nuclear waste immobilization. Methods, Applications and Uses are discussed. Heavy metals (Tl, Cd, Hg, ...) and also selenium are often found as trace elements in common metal sulfides (pyrite (FeS2), zinc blende (ZnS), galena (PbS), ...) present as secondary minerals in most of the raw materials. Most cement kilns today use coal and petroleum coke as primary fuels, and to a lesser extent natural gas and fuel oil. Hydrography of rivers and streams is also an integral part of water management. Ondercategorieën. [69], In some circumstances, mainly depending on the origin and the composition of the raw materials used, the high-temperature calcination process of limestone and clay minerals can release in the atmosphere gases and dust rich in volatile heavy metals, e.g. Over 2011 and 2012, global consumption continued to climb, rising to 3585 Mt in 2011 and 3736 Mt in 2012, while annual growth rates eased to 8.3% and 4.2%, respectively. Javed I. Bhatty, F. MacGregor Miller, Steven H. Kosmatka; editors: This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 16:52. Hydrography, the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. Total cement capacity worldwide was recorded at 5245 Mt in 2012, with 2950 Mt located in China and 2295 Mt in the rest of the world. The performance in the rest of the world, which includes many emerging economies in Asia, Africa and Latin America and representing some 1020 Mt cement demand in 2010, was positive and more than offset the declines in North America and Europe. Hydrographic definition is - of or relating to the characteristic features (such as flow or depth) of bodies of water. W porcie znajduje się suchy dok o długości 180 m, szerokości 28 m i głębokości 9,5 m oraz slip dla statków do 500 ton. [50]:352, Bags of cement routinely have health and safety warnings printed on them because not only is cement highly alkaline, but the setting process is exothermic. View more. "The Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) between cement paste and aggregate in concrete." The EU cement industry already uses more than 40% fuels derived from waste and biomass in supplying the thermal energy to the grey clinker making process. "Natural" cements corresponding to certain cements of the pre-Portland era, are produced by burning argillaceous limestones at moderate temperatures. Values shown are approximate: those of a specific material may vary. This collection method drops a weighted line to the bottom at intervals and records the depth, often from a rowboat or sail boat. Similarly, dry cement powder in contact with mucous membranes can cause severe eye or respiratory irritation. [48] The concrete at young age must be protected against water evaporation due to direct insolation, elevated temperature, low relative humidity and wind. Woodhead, Cambridge, 512 pp. Only 5.18 million tonnes were exported out of China in 2002. Filter Showing 1 - 24 of 184 products. Hydrography, mostly for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. YTL Cement Berhad (MYX: 8737) merupakan syarikat bahan bangunan Malaysia yang terlibat dalam perniagaan produk simen dan konkrit campuran siap.YTL Cement juga merupakan syarikat konkrit campuran siap terbesar dan memiliki sebanyak 500 pengadun serta mempunyai operasinya di Singapura dan China.. YTL Cement merupakan anak syarikat YTL Corporation dan memiliki lebih daripada 70 … . [76], Growing environmental concerns and the increasing cost of fuels of fossil origin have resulted in many countries in a sharp reduction of the resources needed to produce cement and effluents (dust and exhaust gases). Because some materials have both useful mineral content and recoverable calorific value, the distinction between alternative fuels and raw materials is not always clear. Hydrographics in CT can be used on a multitude of materials including but not limited to: plastic, glass, metal and wood. Hydrography of streams will include information on the stream bed, flows, water quality and surrounding land. The Ecofys study found that local factors constrain the market potential to a much larger extent than the technical and economic feasibility of the cement industry itself. Raw Materials of Portland Cement. Monagas State covers a total surface area of 28,900 km 2 (11,200 sq mi) and, as of the 2011 census, had a population of 905,443.. Monagas State is surrounded by Sucre State in the north, Anzoátegui State in the west and south, Bolívar State in the south, Delta Amacuro State in the south and east and the Paria Gulf in the northeast.. Koristi se za dobivanje mortova, žbuka i betona kada se miješa u određenim omjerima s pijeskom, tucanikom i vodom Vrste cementa. substantia ossea s. crusta petrosa) je mineralizovano vezivno tkivo, koje prekriva dentin u predjelu anatomskog korijena zuba. Cement consumed in China will amount to 44% of global demand, and China will remain the world's largest national consumer of cement by a large margin. The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office is one of the oldest, supplying a wide range of charts covering the globe to other countries, allied military organisations and the public. Use of alternative fuels provides benefits for both society and the company: CO2-emissions are lower than with fossil fuels, waste can be co-processed in an efficient and sustainable manner and the demand for certain virgin materials can be reduced. By 2012, Chinese demand was recorded at 2160 Mt, representing 58% of world consumption. With proprietary top coats, our hydrographics set the industry standard for durability. [55] Due to climbing energy costs in Pakistan and other major cement-producing countries, Iran is in a unique position as a trading partner, utilizing its own surplus petroleum to power clinker plants. Cement je obecně pojivo, látka, skládající se z anorganických surovin, která má schopnost tuhnout a vázat další materiály dohromady.Nejobvyklejší portlandský cement obsahuje zejména oxid vápenatý a křemičitý, výrobní proces zahrnuje pálení vápence s jílem či pískem a … Hydraulic cement dries and hardens in a few minutes, while non-hydraulic versions can even take a month or more to reach usable conditions. Terug naar United Kingdom Hydrographic Office. Selected waste and by-products with recoverable calorific value can be used as fuels in a cement kiln (referred to as co-processing), replacing a portion of conventional fossil fuels, like coal, if they meet strict specifications. Application of inorganic cements to the conditioning and immobilisation of radioactive wastes. Bekijk ons assortiment Betonmortel, metselmortel & cement in onze Onlineshop . Annual consumption growth was recorded at 7.4% in 2010, moderating to 5.1% and 4.3% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. [65], In certain applications, lime mortar reabsorbs some of the CO2 as was released in its manufacture, and has a lower energy requirement in production than mainstream cement. The cement industry produces about 10% of global human-made CO2 emissions, of which 60% is from the chemical process, and 40% from burning fuel. C. Hydrographic cement is a complete unknown term to me,if anyone has any information regarding it do comment it down below. As of 2011 in the United States, cement kilns are "legally allowed to pump more toxins into the air than are hazardous-waste incinerators."[71]. Wat is hydraulisch cement? Hydrographic services in most countries are carried out by specialised hydrographic offices. The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is a region of the cement paste around the aggregate particles in concrete. Calcium sulfoaluminate cements are made from clinkers that include ye'elimite (Ca4(AlO2)6SO4 or C4A3S in Cement chemist's notation) as a primary phase. Thuisbezorgd . There is no data between soundings or between sounding lines to guarantee that there is not a hazard such as a wreck or a coral head waiting there to ruin a sailor's day. From custom one of a kind, theme projects, to tens of thousands of parts, we have your project covered. Siam Cement Group Public Company Limited (SCG; SET: SCC) merupakan perusahaan semen dan bahan material tertua dan terbesar di Thailand dan Asia Tenggara.Pada 2016, SCG juga menjadi perusahaan terbesar ke dua di Thailand dan urutan 604 perusahaan publik di dunia berdasarkan majalah Forbes.Saham SCG termasuk ke dalam indeks SET50 dan SET100. Berkas ini dilisensikan di bawah lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-Berbagi Serupa 2.5 Generik: Anda diperbolehkan: Berbagi – menyalin dan menyebarluaskan kembali materi ini dalam bentuk atau format apa pun;; Adaptasi – menggubah, mengubah, dan membuat turunan dari materi ini; Berdasarkan ketentuan berikut: atribusi – Anda harus mencantumkan pengakuan yang sesuai, memberikan … Laagste prijsgarantie . Among all other cements, hydraulic cements are the most common type. (2011). Concrete is used more than any other man-made material in the world. Type II cements are limited in C150/M 85 to a maximum of 8 percent by mass of tricalcium aluminate (a cement phase, often abbreviated C 3 A), which impacts a cement’s sulfate resistance. Ománnal, Szaúd-Arábiával és Katarral határos. Cement je hidrauličko mineralno vezivo koje se dobija mlevenjem tzv. Hydrographic survey is the science of help limesurvey demo audio tsg doc measurement and description of features which affect maritime navigation marine construction dredging offshore oil 5 ways to save money on moving costs bll barcelona explorationoffshore oil drilling and related activities. Rond het begin van de Industriële Revolutie, werd hydrauli A Wikimédia Commons tartalmaz Cement témájú médiaállományokat. Strength forms by hydration to calcium aluminate hydrates. Historically, this could include echosoundings being conducted under settings biased toward least depths, but in modern practice hydrographic surveys typically attempt to best measure the depths observed, with the adjustments for navigational safety being applied after the fact. It's a surprisingly good idea", "Top-Innovationen 2020: Zement lässt sich auch klimafreundlich produzieren", "Cement manufacture and the environment, Part II: Environmental challenges and opportunities", "Why cement emissions matter for climate change", "A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates", International Federation for Structural Concrete, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cement&oldid=997015921, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Hydraulic mortars for masonry construction of harbor works, etc., in contact with sea water.

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